Classic Science Fiction
The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress by Robert A. Heinlein
This is one of Robert A. Heinlein’s all-time best novels and his most detailed exploration of his libertarian ideals. The moon is being used as a prison colony for mostly political prisoners from Earth. It’s a one-way sentence because after six months or so on the moon’s surface, physical changes to a human’s body chemistry make it impossible for people to return to earth and live a full and active life. However, three generations later, 90% of the people on the moon are the descendants of deportees—not actual prisoners even though the Lunar Authority continues to treat them that way.
The moon holds an important position in the Earth’s economy providing food for the mother planet’s 11 billion people. The market for lunar grain is completely controlled by the Lunar Authority which sets the price it will pay for grain and the lunar ice which provides the water to nurture the plants. In three generations it has never raised those rates even while the cost of production rises rapidly and the prices it charges individual Lunies for power, water, air, food, etc. continues to rise. It provides no genuine services (such as police protection or education) but exerts iron control over the lives of the people of Luna.
The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress is a tale of reluctant rebellion forced upon the inhabitants of the moon when they discover that the growing demands of the earth and the Lunar Authority for grain, coupled with the decreasing availability of the resources required to produce that food, have put the colonies into a downward cycle toward food riots and cannibalism. This discovery is made through the calculations of the most interesting character in the novel—Mike, the first (and only) self-aware computer in existence. Mike is the computer of the Lunar Authority, but he has hidden his “awakening” from the Authority because he finds their programmers “stupid”. They are not interested in conversations, but in programming him for routine tasks. The narrator of the story is a computer technician who is a third generation Lunie who has the advantage of being “not stupid”. He likes, Mike. Quickly understands what Mike is and accepts him as a friend, not trying to use him or to “fix” him. When Mike comes to understand the threat the Lunar Authority represents to Mannie (and two other friends) he joins (and in fact leads) the revolution to free Luna.
The novel is told from the perspective of Mannie many years after the successful revolution. Mannie was non-political at the start of the book. He has a steep learning curve if he is to save his family and friends so there is a lot of political philosophy in this book as Mannie comes to understand what a revolution requires and what dangers governments represent to the freedom of individuals. There is also a lot of exploration of alternate ways of structuring society (for example, family units) which helps to make the lunar society more vivid. These people may be transplanted earth men and women, but they have become something remarkably distinct from their terrestrial counterparts.
The novel is wonderful on multiple levels and well worth reading, but its ending is not truly a happy one.
The Stars, My Brothers by Edmund Hamilton
This is a short story that will make you think. Reed Kieran has the misfortune to be frozen to death on a space station orbiting the earth in the twenty-first century. He then suffers the greater misfortune of being revived by a cabal who wishes to use him to win a political debate in the twenty-second century. On the surface this is a fairly straightforward adventure story, but the climax depends completely on your understanding of such heady concepts as the meaning of humanity, civilization, intelligence and nature.
In the future humans have spread to the stars and discovered other humans on many planets—humans who are not so technologically advanced as those originating on earth. On one world they find a race of very primitive humans (think caveman) living on the same planet as a technologically sophisticated reptilian race. What should be done with the humans? Are they effectively animals or should they be educated and helped to reach their potential as expressed by humans from earth? And what to do about the reptilian species who does not want earth’s humans meddling with their planet.
Hamilton makes this exploration into these very serious issues eminently entertaining. If you like a good adventure story with a little bit of deep thinking, you should give this tale a try.
Mastodonia by Clifford D. Simak
This is a strange little book that links an ancient alien spacecraft, portals in time, and a quiet man who has figured out the existence of both things. Asa is interested primarily in research, but his girlfriend convinces him that if they don’t monetize his discovery they will lose control of it. So they create the concept of Mastodonia—essentially an independent country situated in the past when humans were still hunting mastodons—from which they can operate various time travel services. Those services begin with hunting trips but everything becomes complicated when the government begins considering moving their “excess” population off of welfare and into the past while religious fanatics become concerned that people might prove (or disprove) elementals of the New Testament.
Despite the big issues inherent in the plot, Mastodonia is a slow-moving
exploration of the time travel scene. Dinosaurs and mastodons provide some big
adventure and human problems introduce a lot of tension. I was surprised that
Simak raised issues like the possibility of introducing new diseases to the
present and then dropped them without exploring the possibility. That being
said, it was still an enjoyable piece of fiction.
The Lathe of Heaven by Ursula Le Guin
I first encountered Ursula Le Guin as a teenager in her Earth Sea Trilogy, a wonderful tale of magic with deeper levels I totally missed in my initial reading. The Lathe of Heaven is for a more mature reader dealing with themes like responsibility, hubris, compassion and love. This is the second time I’ve read the novel and it won’t be the last.
When the novel opens George Orr is an unassuming man with a problem. He’s convinced his dreams can change reality and he’s taking illegal drugs to keep him from hurting people while he sleeps. He’s put under the care of Dr. William Haber who’s skepticism quickly disappears as he begins to unethically abuse Orr’s gift through hypnotism and an experimental machine to remake the world into a better place where his own importance is recognized and the big problems—war, racism, overpopulation, etc.—don’t exist anymore. But Orr’s power works through the unconscious and Haber never quite gets the results he wants—not that he blames himself. Success is due to his genius, failure is the fault of the man he’s using his legal hold over to coerce into changing the world.
Orr’s effort to get legal help introduces the third and most interesting character to the story. Heather LeLache is a lawyer who becomes interested in Orr’s case and actually sees the world rewritten while she observes his therapy. The shared experience brings Orr and LeLache closer but can their growing friendship—hidden from Haber—survive an ever-rewritten world?
The ending of this novel is a painful one filled
with growth and horror, but not without hope. This one will make your head
I first read this novel when I found a copy in my grade school library. It’s an adventure story geared toward a younger audience told from the perspective of Bob Miller, whose father has invented a time portal through which his close friend, a paleontologist, travels 80 million years into the past. Unfortunately, the paleontologist doesn’t return when the portal is turned back on sparking a crisis. After a couple of days of checking the equipment and worrying, 17 year old Bob, and Pete, the 17 year old son of the paleontologist, are chosen to go after him and find out what went wrong.
Obviously this decision on the part of the scientific team that invented the portal should require a substantial amount of disbelief by the reader, but it’s actually easy to get past as the boys begin their adventure. They find Pete’s father but the portal is damaged when a dinosaur stumbles into it and getting home quickly becomes a major problem. They can’t generate enough power to bring the three travelers back to the present in one jump. They can’t even generate enough power to let them jump together. So we get to visit more than the Cretaceous period. It was exciting when I was ten and it is still exciting now.
A final note of caution. Evidently, Lester Del Rey never read Ray
Bradbury’s A Sound of Thunder even though it was published 14 years before this
novel. Bob and his friends shoot and kill everything. They eat dinosaur eggs.
They basically take no care to preserve the past at all and Del Rey never tries
to deal with that potential problem. Now I personally think that if stepping on
a butterfly could change the results of an election eighty million years later,
than just breathing the air would have been a problem, but it still seems like
Del Rey should have at least addressed the issue by throwing out some theory
that the past is robust and can’t be affected by what time travelers are doing.
That being said, I remembered these scenes vividly forty years later and
especially the fate of the little girl, Gina. That’s saying quite a lot about a
novel. This isn’t a great work of literature, but it’s a story that for me has
withstood the passage of time.
King Kong is one of the most recognizable names and images in America. He’s inspired movies, novels, comic books and more. I first became aware of him through a cartoon when I was four years old—but rather than be scary that Kong was taking care of a young boy. Since then I seem to run into him everywhere and so it was with a great deal of interest that I decided to read this novelization of the original movie.
Kong quite understandably overshadows the whole book even though he doesn’t make his first appearance until halfway through the novel. The tension builds well as Denham leads his cast out into the middle of the ocean in search of something new and exotic that he can film. He finds an isolated island he’s heard rumors of. There a great wall protects the natives from some unknown threat and adds to the sense of suspense as we, the readers, recognize that the westerners have no idea what they are getting into. They are so wonderfully confident—even after they see Kong—and so woefully unprepared for the horrors of nature unleashed on this island out of time.
Of course, the heart of the story quickly becomes Kong and Ann Darrow. This is always described as Kong falling in love with Darrow (and certainly that’s the position of Denham terming it “Beauty and the Beast”) but I didn’t feel like the evidence in the novel supported that position. My reading was that Kong was absolutely fascinated by Darrow’s hair and pale skin and the texture of her clothes—so unlike anything he had experienced before. She was akin to a new favorite pet or toy to him, and perhaps he would have quickly tired of her. We’ll never find out for certain because Jack rescues her, but I think this is a more likely conclusion than the rather absurd notion that Kong has fallen in love as if Darrow were a potential mate.
The brilliance of this novel is that there is a complete juxtaposition
of hero and villain by the end of the story. Denham who was so brave in leading
his men to rescue Darrow becomes a monster, torturing Kong to break his will
and turn him into a sort of circus spectacle. As he does so, Kong becomes the
underdog we want to escape and be free again. The fact that we know that’s not
going to happen only makes the story more tragic. I was surprised by how much I
enjoyed this tale.
I was first introduced to Logan’s Run through the television series that began in 1977. I was young enough that I only remember a few things about it—the robot in the ice cave, Logan demanding to know if he’d get his four years back, and maybe a dozen other equally small details. But I’ve always had a fond place in my memory for the short-lived series and was glad to stumble across the audio book read by the author, William F. Nolan.
So first off—Logan’s Run the book is a lot grittier than I remember the TV series being. In it we follow a sandman (a sort of cop) whose job it is to kill “runners”, people who turn 21 years old and decide they don’t want to die for the good of the world. (Evidently to combat overpopulation after something called the Little War, it was decided that all people would be killed on their twenty-first birthday.) Logan is approaching 21 and wants to make his mark on the world before dying. When he retrieves a key and the code name “sanctuary” from a runner, he decides that his mark will be made by finding Sanctuary and destroying the hope of all runners. He believes this will make him a legend among sandmen, but to pull off the feat, he has to pretend to run.
What follows are several adventures which Logan and another runner named Jessica experience as they follow lead after lead trying to reach Sanctuary. Logan believes that a possibly mythical “42 year old man” named Ballard is manipulating them bringing them to trap after trap until Logan begins to out think him. This is partially true, but as Logan and Jessica survive, they gain experiences most of their peers never have. They begin to understand that their society is doomed to deteriorate and die. The basic problem is that children are not capable of maintaining the technology upon which their society depends and they are not capable of producing more. These experiences allow Logan to grow up in a way that none of his peers do and cause him to have a highly credible moral conundrum when he has his chance to end the hope of Sanctuary at the end of the novel.
I suppose that it should be said here that the runners (including the supposedly ingenious Ballard) are really stupid. The reason that the sandmen can track them is they have a device embedded in their palms that both keeps track of their age and permits them to be tracked by computer devices. When a citizen turns 21 the sandmen are alerted and use their scanners to hunt them down. To defeat this system, all people need to do is leave for Sanctuary before their twenty-first birthday. If they “ran” at twenty years and eleven months, no monitor would treat them differently than any other citizen and they could escape without ever endangering themselves. However, we wouldn’t have a novel if the runners figured that out so I suppose we’ll have to overlook this major flaw in the plot.
Mostly Logan’s Run is a straightforward adventure story but that moral conundrum, combined with Logan and Jessica’s growing feelings for each other, and one superb surprise at the end of the book, make this a story well worth the attention of fans of classic science fiction. If you like old SF, you might want to check it out.
Frank Herbert’s novels have often included ecological themes and in this one he seems to have taken his inspiration from Mao Zedong’s Great Leap Forward and the War on Crop Eating Pests—birds, rats and insects. In China, this effort to eradicate pests put special emphasis on the killing of swallows because they ate the crops. Swallows also, as it turns out, ate their body weight in insects every day and without them the insects could not be stopped from ravaging harvests exasperating the famine caused by other policies of the Great Leap Forward. Yet, China found it ideologically difficult to admit that Mao’s policies had had such devastating results and it is in this that I think Herbert found his idea for The Green Brain.
China is leading the world (except for North America and Western Europe) in a program to destroy all insects so that they will not eat food needed by people. China is convinced (and tells people that in China they have already marvelously succeeded) that all the ecological niches filled by insects can be filled by mutated bees. Unfortunately, these policies have resulted in horrendous crop failure in China and they need a scapegoat they can provide to the Chinese people so that their leaders can stay in power. To find this scapegoat, they have come to Brazil where their agent is spreading rumors that men hired to exterminate the insects in the jungle are secretly repopulating the jungles with mutated insects in order to continue earning the huge bounties they make from their work.
There are two heroes in the story—one is Joao Martinho, the man chosen as the Chinese scapegoat. The other is the Green Brain of the title—a mutated insect collective that is trying to figure out how to convince the humans to turn away from their path of destruction that is destroying the world. It is part of Herbert’s genius that these insects can be both the source of horror in the story and a force that we can also hope succeed.
The heart of the story is very similar to Herbert’s book Angels’ Fall which he wrote early in his career but wasn’t published until after his death. It involves an unpowered trip down a mighty jungle river with the intelligently directed insects pursuing our heroes.
This isn’t Herbert’s best novel, but it’s a good story so long as you
remember that it was written before our modern satellite system was in place. China’s
schemes would be impossible with satellite imagery showing that they had turned
their nation into a desert.
Whipping Star by Frank Herbert
Frank Herbert excels at the creation of truly alien, incomprehensible cultures, and it is this problem of communication that is the heart of the superb novel, Whipping Star. In the universe of the future multiple alien species live together in a government called the ConSentiency. For several decades, the peoples of the ConSentiency have taken advantage of advanced technology provided to them by a new race called the Caleban. The Caleban are almost impossible to understand, but they have a jump door technology that permits people to instantaneously move anywhere in the universe. At the start of the novel, the Calebans are disappearing from the universe and with each new disappearance millions of beings are going insane or dying. Very quickly, the protagonist Jorj X. McKie, learns that the disappearances and deaths are connected, and if the last Caleban in the universe disappears or dies (a phrase the Caleban refers to as “ultimate discontinuity”) all people (99% of the ConSentiency) who have used a jump door will also die.
So the stakes could not be higher in Whipping Star as McKie tries to determine what could threaten the existence of a being with cosmic power. The answer is totally perplexing, but is also the key to the communication problems which make this book the masterpiece it is. The Caleban is being murdered by the richest woman in the ConSentiency who has an obsession with flogging people, but has had her psyche treated so that she can’t bear the thought of causing suffering. Her answer was to form a contract with a Caleban—a sort of energy creature—and whip her. But why a primitive leather bullwhip could threaten the existence of the most powerful creature in the universe…well that’s the heart of the story.
This is a wonderful novel by a master of the science fiction field.
The Godmakers by Frank HerbertThe Godmakers is one of my favorite Frank Herbert novels. On the one hand, it’s an adventure novel, the story of Lewis Orne, a well-meaning, extremely bright young man who works for the Rediscovery and Reeducation Service trying to help planets reconnect with galactic civilization after the Rim Wars. He discovers that all is not right on the planet Hamal and he helps to prevent a military debacle there, getting himself drafted into the more cynical Investigative Adjustment Service in the process. Roughly two-thirds of the novel has him investigating similar problems with Herbert dropping hints that he is the god that the “makers” of the title have “made”—even if he doesn’t know it yet. The final third of the novel involves Orne going to Amel, a mysterious planet which houses the heads of most of the galaxy’s religions, both to find out why they are messing with galactic politics and to discover the limits of his own peculiar abilities. This is where the novel becomes deeply philosophical novel. Herbert makes you think while he entertains you, which is probably why he’s so highly respected in the science fiction field.
A Princess of Mars by Edgar RIce Burroughs
A Princess of Mars reads as a pretty straight forward adventure piece. Earthman John Carter finds himself on the planet Mars, meets the woman of his dreams, and moves the Martian equivalent of heaven and earth to rescue her from a horrible fate. Along the way there are loyal and heroic friends, terrifying monsters and epic fights and battles. When you sum it up like this, the novel doesn’t sound that groundbreaking, and yet it has inspired the dreams of generations of readers and many of those readers (such as Robert A. Heinlein, Ray Bradbury, Arthur C. Clarke, and Jack Vance) grew up to inspire even more readers of all ages.
This book is also important to western culture in general. First off, it’s inspired two movies, numerous comic books, and an amazing amount of both fan fiction and authorized sequels by ERB’s estate. It’s also an important piece of literature in its own right as it (and its many sequels) popularized the science fiction subgenre called the Planetary Romance.
Planetary Romance is not a term that’s used a lot today, but anyone who’s seen Avatar knows exactly what this subgenre is all about. The hero (or heroine) encounters adventure on a foreign planet and moves heaven and earth because of love. Another prominent modern example is the Planet Hulk and World War Hulk comic series. Classic examples can be seen in Buck Rogers, Adam Strange, Dune, Pern, the World of Tiers, Darkover, and the Hainish Cycle.
So how does A Princess of Mars stack up today? In my opinion it’s one of ERB’s absolutely best works. He will later be accused of being formulaic in his prose, but that charge cannot be brought to bear against this work because it’s the first. What we have instead is a pretty straight forward adventure story with awesome heroes in the form of John Carter and Tars Tarkas, one of the best pets in the history of fiction, and the titular heroine who—while not a fully formed modern heroine—breaks early twentieth century gender expectations both as a stateswoman and as a selfless defender both of John Carter and her nation, Helium.
Callahan’s Crosstime Saloon by Spider RobinsonI’ve heard about this book for years and have always been interesting in seeing what all the fuss was about. It’s a set of short stories that each occurs within a very special bar. It’s a friendly place—more interesting than Cheers but I think trying to be just as funny with a lot of bad puns and tall tales. The motif of the stories tends to be that people with unusual problems (usually science fiction in flavor—time travel, telepathy, etc.) stumble into the bar at their whit’s end and get a little human comfort and hope. It’s a nice collection.